Fogas kérdések

2012.01.22. - Írta: dr. Gerle János, fogorvos

Fogas kérdések

A betegek elsősorban esztétikai okokra hivatkozva fordulnak fogorvoshoz. A fogkő, a megtapadt ételmaradék, az ételekben, italokban lévő színező anyagok (kávé, tea, vörösbor stb.) hatására megváltoztatják a fog természetes színét.

Mi a fogkő, és milyen gyakran kell eltávolítani?

Dentalis plakknak nevezzük a fogak vagy a különböző fogpótlások felszínén megtapadó ételmaradékokat, amelyek csak erős mechanikus behatással távolíthatók el. Ha ezeket a felszíneket nem tisztítjuk megfelelően a plakkban lévő anyagok bomlástermékei és a nyálból kiválasztódó ásványi anyagok létrehozzák a fogkövet.
A fogkő különböző keménységű, a fog felszíneihez vagy a fogművekhez erősen tapad. A kialakult fogkövek károsítják a fog tartószerkezetét, először a fog körüli ép ínyszélt, majd a mélyebb rétegeket is. Állandó mechanikai irritációt és gyulladást tartanak fent, amelynek tünete az ínyvérzés, esetleg fájdalom. A kialakult nagy mennyiségű fogkövet fogkefével már nem lehet eltávolítani, csak a fogorvos vagy a vele együtt dolgozó fogászati higiénikus tudja megfelelően eltávolítani: ez a profeszszionális fogtisztítás. A fogorvosi vizsgálat alkalmával a fogorvosnak meg kell állapítania, hogy milyen mértékű a károsodás, és rendszeres (3-6 hónaponként) ellenőrzés alkalmával a fogkőeltávolítást, a fogfelszínek tisztítását elvégeznie. Így csökkenteni lehet az ínyszél és a fog tartószöveteinek károsodását.
Természetesen az esztétikai szempontok is fontosak, de ennél sokkal fontosabb a szájegészség megőrzése. Évente legalább kétszer el kell távolítani a fogkövet, de akiknél a fogkőképződési hajlam nagyobb azoknál évente többször is szükséges lehet. A jó szájhigiéne, a szájüreg egészségének megőrzése szempontjából rendkívül fontos, mert jelentős mértékben csökkenthető a fogszuvasodás, az íny és a nyálkahártya betegségek kialakulásának lehetősége.
 

Okozhat-e a hiányos fogazat gyomorpanaszokat?

A tápanyag feldolgozása a rágással és a nyálban lévő bontó enzimek segítségével már a szájüregben elkezdődik. A hiányos fogazat – különösen a rágófogak hiánya – nagyon sok probléma okozója lehet. A nem megfelelően megrágott, felaprított táplálék feldolgozatlanul, nagyobb darabokban kerül a gyomor-bélrendszerbe. Ez már önmagában is panaszokat okozhat. Azonban nem csak a fogak hiánya, hanem a fogak állapota is befolyásolja a szervezet egészségi állapotát. A fogbél elhalás, a gyökérhártya gyulladásával járó panaszok önmagukban is gócként jelentkeznek. A szervezet immunrendszerét jelentősen gyengítik, és a góc betegség jellemző tüneteivel, járnak, pl.: hajhullás, gyomorpanasz, bőrtünetek.
 

Igényelnek-e más ápolást a tejfogak, mint a maradófogak?

A fogazat egészségének megőrzése már kisgyermek korban is fontos feladat. Az első tejfogak általában a hatodik hónap és az első életév között jelennek meg. A fogáttörés azonban nagy eltéréseket mutathat. A fogzás fájdalommal és nyálfolyással, nyugtalansággal, ínyduzzanattal járhat. Már az első fogak megjelenésekor a fogmosást el kell kezdenünk. 1-3 éves korban az esti fürdéssel össze lehet kötni a fogmosást. Először játékos formában a szülő segítségével. Színes fogkefékkel, jóízű gyermekfogkrémekkel lehet rászoktatni a gyerekeket a fogmosásra. Később a gyermek önállóan próbálkozhat a fogmosással, utánozva a felnőtteket. Fontos, hogy a gyermek hozzászokjon a napi rendszeres tisztálkodáshoz, testápoláshoz, a fogmosást is beleértve. Később a közösségbe kerülés után is tovább kell gondoskodni a gyermek fogainak ápolásáról, és a rendszeres fogorvosi ellenőrzéséről. A lyukas tejfogakat is természetesen megfelelő kezelésben kell részesíteni.

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